极速赛车

【实践新论】新发展阶段如何实现脱贫攻坚与乡村振兴有效衔接

2020-12-23 14:58来源:光明网-理论频道编辑:申于诚
打好脱贫攻坚战是实施乡村振兴战略的优先任务。

编者按:为进一步深入学习宣传贯彻习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想,推进用党的创新理论武装头脑、指导实践、推动工作,把制度优势更好地转化为治理效能,中央网信办与光明日报社共同组织“实践新论”网上理论传播专栏,陆续在光明网推出系列理论稿件和新媒体作品,解析理论与实践之间的内在逻辑,敬请关注。

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dianjitupianguankan

xijinpingzongshujizhichu,tuopinzhaimaobushizhongdian,ershixinshenghuo、xinfendoudeqidian。yaojiexutuijinquanmiantuopinyuxiangcunzhenxingyouxiaoxianjie,tuidongjianpinzhanlvehegongzuotixipingwenzhuanxing,tongchounaruxiangcunzhenxingzhanlve,jianlizhangduanjiehe、biaobenjianzhidetizhijizhi。dangdeshijiujiewuzhongquanhuitongguode《zhonggongzhongyangguanyuzhidingguominjingjiheshehuifazhandishisigewunianguihuaheerlingsanwunianyuanjingmubiaodejianyi》zhong,zaiyiciqiangdiaotichu“shixiangonggutuozhantuopingongjianchengguotongxiangcunzhenxingyouxiaoxianjie”,guihuabujule“shisiwu”qijiantuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingyouxiaoxianjiededazhengfangzhen,weifangzhipinkunrenkoufanpinfupinjianqilefanghuwang,wei“shisiwu”xinfazhanjieduandetuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingliangdazhanlveyouxiaoxianjiezhujilitai。

  tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingliangdazhanlveweishenmeyaoyouxiaoxianjie

  xijinpingzongshujizhichu,dahaotuopingongjianzhanshishishixiangcunzhenxingzhanlvedeyouxianrenwu。xiangcunzhenxingconglaibushilingqiluzao,ershizaituopingongjiandejichushangtuijin。zaituopingongjiandejichushangjiexuxiangcunzhenxingzhanlveyijingchengweiyuelaiyuejinpoderenwu,yaoqingxingrenshiqizhongyaoyiyi。

  gonggutuopingongjianchengguodexuyao。2020nianwoguotuopingongjianqudelejuedingxingchengjiu,suizhe90%yishangdepinkunxiantuichuzhaimaohepinkunrenkoutuopin,woguoquyuxingzhengtipinkunwentihenongcunrenkoudejueduipinkunwentiyijingjibenjiejue,yuxiadeshendupinkundiqu“sanquliangzhou”pinkunwentiyejijiangjiejue,gongzuozhongdianzhuanxiangquanmiangonggulaizhibuyidetuopingongjianchengguo,tishengtuopinzhiliang,zengqiangtuopindewendingxinghekechixuxing。gonggutuopingongjianchengguo,xuyaorenzhenzongjietuopingongjiansuoqudedechengjiu,tiliangedihaodezuofahechenggongjingyan,baxingzhiyouxiaodefupinzhiduanpaihezhengcecuoshiquanmiantuiguangbingjinxingyanshen,tebieshijiangyixieyeyichengxingdezuofazhiduhua、guifanhua,weixiangcunzhenxingzhanlveshishitigongkejiejiandejingyan,yeweihoujingzhunfupinshidaidepinkunzhilitigongkechixudongli。

  jiejue“sannong”wentidexuyao。nongye、nongcun、nongminshizhongshizhongguozheiyangyigenongyedaguomianlindehengjiuhuati,zhongguohaiyoujinliuyirenkoushenghuozainongcun,pinkunrenkouyezhuyaojizhongzainongcun,shengchanliluohou、shengtaihuanjingehua、zhilixiaolvdi、renkouguoduliushi、laolinghuajiajudengwentirengrancunzai。suoyixijinpingzongshujizhichu,nongyenongcunnongminwentishiguanxiguojiminshengdegenbenxingwenti,bixushizhongbajiejuehao“sannong”wentizuoweiquandanggongzuozhongzhongzhizhong。zhongguochengzhenhualvcong1995niande29%biaoshengzhi2019niande60.60%,ernongcunrenkoucong1995niande8.6yixiajiangdao2019niande5.5yi,zhengzheng3yirenlikainongcun,nongcunrenkouyufadiaoling。shiquqingzhuangnianzhichengdenongcun,zhiliuxiabuyuanlikaidelaoren、burenlikaidefunv、bunenglikaideertong,nongcunbei“liushoulaoren”“liushoufunv”he“liushouertong”zhanlingzhe。shixiantuopingongjianhexiangcunzhenxingliangdazhanlvedeyouxiaoxianjie,chengweiyouxiaojiejue“sannong”wentidexuyao。

  shixian“lianggeyibainian”fendoumubiao、shixianquantirenmingongtongfuyudexuyao。zhongguogongchandangdezongzhishiquanxinquanyiweirenminfuwu,chuxinheshimingshiweizhongguorenminmouxingfu、weizhonghuaminzumoufuxing。zaozai1979nian,dengxiaopingjiuzhidingle“sanbuzou”dezhanlvebushuhe“rangyibufenrenxianfuqilai,zuizhongshixiangongtongfuyu”defazhanlujing。dangdeshibadayilai,yixijinpingtongzhiweihexindedangzhongyang,jinyibuxihuale“sanbuzou”dezhanlvebushu,qianghuale“lianggeyibainian”dezhanlveanpai,mingquedao2020nianyao“quanmianjianchengxiaokangshehui”defendoumubiao,“xiaokangbuxiaokang,guanjiankanlaoxiang”。tuopingongjianxiaochulejueduipinkun,danlifuyuhaiyouhenzhangdejuli,shixiantuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingdeyouxiaoxianjie,jiushishijinliuyinongmintongxiangfuyuzhiludeyigeyouxiaocuoshi。jingzhunfupinyuxiangcunzhenxingsuoduiyingdeshijianduanbutong、cezhongdianbutong、jizhibutong,danerzhedegenbenmubiaoyizhi,jishixian“lianggeyibainian”fendoumubiao,tuijinnongcunnongyenongminxiandaihua。zhiyouerzheyoujixianjie,cainengbuduangonggutuopingongjiandechengguo,shixianquantirenmingongtongfuyu。

  “tuopingongjian”yu“xiangcunzhenxing”liangdazhanlveyouxiaoxianjiedejichu

  zaituopingongjianshouguanzhijihexiangcunfazhanzhongliangdazhanlverenwujiexudeguanjianshiji,yaoshixianpinkundiquchixutuopinhequanmianzhenxing,bingbunengjinjinyaoqiuzhichizhengcebubianhuozhichilidubujian,ershibixujiakuaiwanchengcongyingjixingzhengcequxiangxiangzhangqixingzhengceshejidezhongdazhuanbian,dangwuzhijishizhaodaoerzhedegongtongdianhechayi,tongguozhengceneirongheshishifangshidehelidiaozheng,shixiantuopingongjianhexiangcunzhenxingliangdazhanlveyouxiaoxianjie。

  liangdazhanlvejuyougongtongdian。zaituopingongjiandejichushangjiexuxiangcunzhenxingzhanlvebujinshiwoguogaozhiliangtuopindezhongyaolujing,gengshipinkundiququanmianshixianxiangcunzhenxingmubiaodezhongyaozhidubaozhang。

  shouxian,erzhemubiaoyizhi。tuopingongjianhexiangcunzhenxingdoushiweishixian“lianggeyibainian”fendoumubiaoquedingdeguojiazhanlveanpai,tuopingongjianzhongdiantongguodaguimozijin、wuzi、renlidengfupinziyuandejizhongtouru,youxiaojiejuepinkunrenkoudejibenshengcunwenti,quanmianxiaochujueduipinkunxianxiang。xiangcunzhenxingtongguozongtixingjihuoxiangcunneishengdongli,nenggouweipinkunquntitigonggengwendingdefazhanjichuhejihui,jinyibuyouxiaogonggutuopingongjiandezhengcechengguo。erzhemubiaoyu“lianggeyibainian”fendoumubiaoyizhi,zhanlvemubiaozhijianxianghulianxi、xianghuxianjie,buduantigao,zhubushenhua,tixianlelianxuxinghejieduanxingdetongyi。

  qici,erzheneironggongrong。tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingliangdazhanlvedouzheyanyujiejue“sannong”wenti,congchanyefazhan、yiminbanqian、jichusheshigaishan、xiangcunzhili、minshengbaozhangyijitizhijizhigoujiandengfangmianzuochuzhiduanpai。biru,fazhanxiangcunteseyoushichanyejishichanyefupinjianshixiaodekeguanyaoqiu,yeshishixianchanyexingwangdebiranxuanze,douzhiliyutongguofazhannongchanpinjiagongye,cujinnongcunyi、er、sanchanyeronghefazhan,rangnonghuxiangshougengduochanyeliandezengzhishouyi。shishiyidifupinbanqianshijiejue“yifangshuitubunengyangyifangren”deyouxiaoshouduan,tongyangyeshishunyingcunzhuangfazhanguilv,fenleituijinxiangcunjianshe,tongchoujiejuecunminshengji、jichusheshijiansheyushengtaihuanbaodengwentidezhongyaoxingshi。jiaoyu、yiliao、zhufangjizuidishenghuobaozhangdoudituopin,benshenjiushixiangcunzhenxingzhanlvezhongtuijinchengxiangjibengonggongfuwujundenghuadezhongyaozhibiao。

  zaici,erzhezhutixiangtong。xijinpingzongshujizhichu,pinkunqunzhongjishituopingongjiandeduixiang,gengshituopinzhifudezhuti。tuopingongjianzhanlvedeshishi,nongminshituopingongjiandezhuti、xiangmushishidezhuti、shouyigongxiangdezhuti,erzhengfuzeshibangfudezhuti、shehuidongyuandezhutihetuopinzerendezhuti;xiangcunzhenxingzhanlvedeshishi,nongminshixiangcunzhenxingdezhuti,jiyiyuanchuzinongmin、donglilaizinongmin、yiweihunongminqunzhonggenbenliyiweichufadianheluojiaodian。wulunshituopingongjianhaishixiangcunzhenxingdouqiangdiaonenglijianshe,jifanongmindejijixinghezhudongxing,zengqiangtamentuopinzhifudeneishengdongli。liangdazhanlveshishidoulibukainongminzhutizuoyongdefahui。

  zuihou,erzhejizhihucu。tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingliangdazhanlveshishi,douyaoyikaozhongguogongchandangdejianqianglingdaohezhongguoteseshehuizhuyizhiduyoushidetizhijizhilaibaozhang。tuopingongjiandechenggong,guanjianzaiyudangdelingdaohetizhijizhichuangxin,biruxingchenglezhongyangtongchou、shengfuzongze、shixianzhualuoshidegongzuojizhi,goujianlezhuanxiangfupin、xingyefupin、shehuifupin“sanweiyiti”dedafupingeju,xingchengledongxibufupinxiezuojizhi、dingdianfupinjizhiheshehuililiangcanyujizhi,zhanxianchulejudazhengzhiyoushihezhiduyoushi,zheixiedouweixiangcunzhenxingdiandinglegongzuojichuhebaozhang。shishixiangcunzhenxingzhanlve,dangdelingdaoshiguanjian,zhongguoteseshehuizhuyizhidushibaozhang。zhuanhua、xishou、jiajiezhongyangtongchou、shengfuzongze、shixianxiangzhualuoshidegongzuojizhi,yindaogeleirencaitoushenxiangcunzhenxing,youliyugonggutuopingongjianchengguo,shixianxiangcunzhenxingzhanlveshishidechenggong。

  liangdazhanlvejuyoubutongdian。tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingtongshuyushikongbingfudeziyuanpeizhi,jicunzaishijianweidudexianxinghouxuguanxi,youcunzaikongjianweidudejiaochazhongdieguanxi。zheizhongshuangzhongweidudexietongguanxitixianchuliangdazhanlvebutongdezhengcezhelidian。erzhehaicunzaihenduobutongdian,zhuyaobiaoxianzai:

  diyi,erzhedeyouxianrenwuyudingcengshejiyoubie。tuopingongjianshiquanmianjianchengxiaokangshehuidedixianrenwu,shishishixiangcunzhenxingzhanlvedeyouxianrenwu,juyoujinpoxing、youxianxing、jieduanxingdengtedian。dayingtuopingongjianzhan,bixujianchixianxingfupinbiaozhun,anzhaojidingshijianjiedian,duibiaoquanmianjianchengxiaokangshehuidemubiaoyaoqiu,buzhebukoujiayiwancheng。xiangcunzhenxingzhanlvezuoweiqidazhanlvezhiyixierudangzhang,shizaibawogongnongchengxiangguanxiyanbianguilvdejichushang,tongchoujiejue“sannong”wentidedingcengsheji。yaozaixiangcunzhenxingzheiyidingcengshejizhong,tuchuzhongdian、jizhongfali,quebaoyouxianrenwulvxianwancheng。

  dier,erzhedebiaozhunyoubie。tuopingongjiandeshijiandao2020nian,biaozhunshi“wendingshixiannongcunpinkunrenkoubuchouchi、buchouchuan,yiwujiaoyu、jibenyiliaohezhufanganquanyoubaozhang;pinkundiqunongminrenjunkezhipeishouruzengzhangfudugaoyuquanguopingjunshuiping,jibengonggongfuwuzhuyaolingyuzhibiaojiejinquanguopingjunshuiping”。xiangcunzhenxingzhanlvezheyanyudiergebainianfendoumubiao,jiquanmianjiansheshehuizhuyixiandaihuaqiangguo,biaozhunzaiyuchedigaibianqianbainianlainongcunpinkunluohoudemianmao,shixiannongyequanmianshengji、nongcunquanmianjinbu、nongminquanmianfazhan。

  disan,erzhezhenduideduixiangyoubie。tuopingongjianzhanlvededuixiangshixianxingbiaozhunxiadenongcunpinkunrenkouzheiyitedingqunti,jujiaozaijiandanglikapinkunhu,zheyanyupinkundiquzheiyitedingquyu。tuopingongjiandemubiaoquntishijidingde、mingquede、youyangebiaozhunde,fupinzhengcezaipinkunhuyufeipinkunhu、pinkuncunyufeipinkuncun、pinkunxianyufeipinkunxianzhijianyouyangedezhixingjiexian。xiangcunzhenxingqiangdiaotongguopuhuixingzhichicujinquanmianzhenxing,huijishijiyirenkou,fugaichengxiang,zaichengxiangronghefazhanzhongcujinjingji、zhengzhi、shehui、wenhua、shengtaifazhanhedangdejianshe,zhuzhongguanlianxing、zhengtixing,shixianxietongtuijin。

  disi,erzheshicemouhuayoubie。tuopingongjianzhuzhongweiguanshice,zuidatesezaiyujianchijingzhunfupinjingzhuntuopindejibenfanglve,“wugeyipi”he“liugejingzhun”shizuijizhongdetixian。tuopingongjianqiangdiaocongmeiyiweipinkunqunzhongdezhipinyuanyinchufa,zhidingchabiehua、qingxiexingdezhichizhengce,shixianyinren、yindi、yinpinkunyuanyin、yinpinkunleixingshice,xiazuxiuhuagongfu,shishibaxiangzhiliao。xiangcunzhenxingzhanlvezhuzhongzhengtimouhua,gengduodiqiangdiaonongyenongcunquyuxietongfazhan,jianchinongyexiandaihuayunongcunxiandaihuayitisheji、yibingtuijin,tuchuzhuahaoguihuadeyinlingzuoyong,zaijinlierweideqiantixia,gengduodiqiangdiaolianglierxing,youjihua、youbuzhouditongguochixuxingzhengcehetouru,tongchoutuijinnongyenongcungexiangshiyefazhan。

  diwu,erzhewentizhongxinyoubie。tuopingongjianzhuyaojiejuenongcunpinkunrenkoudejueduipinkunwenti,quebaopinkunrenkoushixian“liangbuchou、sanbaozhang”。suiranduiyupinkunqunzhongdejiaoyu、yiliaohezhufangyeyoumingqueyaoqiu,danshizengjiashoururengshidiyiweide。xiangcunzhenxinghaijiangtongguogaishannongcunjichusheshihegonggongfuwu,quanmiantishengnongcunjiaoyu、yiliao、yanglao、wenhuaheshehuibaozhangshuiping,jiejueduoweidupinkunwenti。suizhechengxiangronghedetizhijizhizhubuwanshan,xiangcunzhenxingzhanlveduiyutongchouchengxiangpinkunzhilidezuoyongjiangzhubuxianxian。

  tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingliangdazhanlvezenyangyouxiaoxianjie

  tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingdeyoujixianjie,yaoyoujidicong“tuopingongjian”guodudao“xiangcunzhenxing”,cong“liangbuchousanbaozhang”guodudao“chanyexingwang、shengtaiyiju、xiangfengwenming、zhiliyouxiao、shenghuofuyu”。

  diyi,goujianchanyetixi,shixiancongchanyefupindaochanyezhenxingzhuanbian,weixiangcunzhenxingdalaojichu。tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingxianjiedejichuzaiyuchanyezhenxing,chanyezhenxingshijianlijiejuexiangduipinkunrenkouzhangxiaojizhide“niubizi”,weishengtaizhenxing、wenhuazhenxing、rencaizhenxing、zuzhizhenxingdiandingjingjijichu。yichanyefazhanweizhongdian,fazhanduozhongxingshiguimojingying,tishengshichangjingzhengli,zuozhangliantiao,zhuanxingshengji,goujianxiandainongyechanyetixi,tuijintuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingduoyuanhuayoujixianjie。

  dier,peiyurencaiduiwu,shixianfupin“jianbing”daorencaizhenxingzhuanbian。tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingxianjiedeguanjianzhiyizaiyurendezhenxing、rencaidezhenxing。wulunshituopingongjianhaishixiangcunzhenxing,jifarenminqunzhongdezhutiyishi、peiyuziwofazhandeneishengdonglishigenbenbanfa。zaituopingongjianzhong,bafupinyufuzhi、fupinyufuzhiyoujidijieheqilai,zhelipeiyupinkunqunzhongdeneishengdongli,shiwomendayingtuopingongjianzhandeguanjianzhiju。fuzhifuzhikeyitongguokaizhanlaodonglizhuanyipeixun、nongcunshiyongjinengpeixundeng,yijingshenjiliren、yizhilidaidongren,pinkunqunzhongyoule“woyaotuopin”deqianglieyiyuanhe“wonengtuopin”defazhannengli;xiangcunzhenxingzhongjixuyao“tebienengchiku、tebienengzhandou、tebienengdandang、tebienengfengxian”deyouxiuganbujixufahui“daitouren”he“tujidui”shifanyinlingzuoyong,gengxuyaotongguo“neiyu”he“waiyin”,peiyangdapidongnongye、ainongcun、ainongmindexinnongmin、xinqiyejia、xinjishuzhuanjia。

  disan,jianshewenmingxiangfeng,shixiancongwenhuafupindaowenhuazhenxingzhuanbian。wenhuazaituopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingzhongjuyouyinlingzuoyong。wenhuazhenxingyingyishehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguanweiyinling,caiqufuhenongcun、nongmintediandeyouxiaofangshi,jiaqiangaiguozhuyi、jitizhuyi、shehuizhuyijiaoyu。yifangmianyingchongfenfahuixianshangyuxianxialianggepingtaizuoyong,yongkexuedelilunjiaoyunongmin、wuzhuangnongmin。lingyifangmianyingzhenglixiangguiminyue、zupujiaxundengdaodeziyuan,chongfenfahuicunminshenbianxianjindianxingdeshifanxiaoying,hongyangzhonghuaminzuchuantongmeide,jiaoyuyindaocunminxiangshangxiangshan、xiaolaoaiqin、zhongyishouxin、qinjianchijia,peiyuwenmingxiangfeng、lianghaojiafeng、chunpominfeng,shenrutuijinxiangcunshehuigongde、jiatingmeide、cunminpindejianshe。

  disi,peiyushengtainongye,shixiancongshengtaifupindaoshengtaizhenxingzhuanbian,yishengtaigubenshixianshengtaiyiju。tuopingongjianyuxiangcunzhenxingdehuanjingxianjiezaiyushengtaizhenxing,yaolizunongcundeshengtaiyoushi,ranglianghaoshengtaichengweixiangcunzhenxingdezhichengdian。shengtaizhenxing,yaolaogushuli“lvshuiqingshanjiushijinshanyinshan”he“renbufuqingshan,qingshandingbufuren”delvsefazhanlinian,yishengtaizhenxingcujinyiye、yiju、meilixiangcunjianshe,jianchizoushengtaiyouxian、lvsefazhanzhilu,cujinshengtaifupinyushengtaizhenxingyouxiaoxianjie。tongguoshengtaizhenxing,chuangxinfazhansilu,tansuojianglvshuiqingshanzhuanhuaweijinshanyinshandejutilujing,shixiannongyeqiang、nongcunmei、nongminfudexiangcunzhenxingmubiao。

  diwu,wanshanxiangcunzhili,weixiangcunzhenxingtigongzhiliyouxiaodezuzhibaozhang。dangdelingdaoshixiangcunquanmianzhenxingdejishihebaozhang,jicengdangzuzhizaituopingongjianzhongfahuilezhongyaozuoyong,shi“buzoudegongzuodui”,yeshishishixiangcunzhenxingzhanlvede“zhuxingu”,shixiangcunzhenxingdezhengzhibaozhanghezuzhibaozhang。yinci,yaojixufahuijicengdangzuzhidezuzhiyoushi,baguangdajicengdangyuanhequnzhongdesixiang、xingdong、lilianghezhihuiningjuqilai,shitamenqixinjulitoushenxiangcunjingjishehuijianshezhong。



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